Levels of Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine in Pre-Eclamptic Patients with and Without Placenta Abruption
Keywords:Preeclampsia, Vitamin B12, Homocysteine, Placenta abruption
This study aimed to determine vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in pre-eclamptic patients with and without placenta abruption.
A case-control study comprised 60 participants (cases n =30 and control n = 30) ages 17-28 years to evaluate the correlation between vitamin B12 and homocysteine. Each participant was interviewed for data collection regarding their age, education, income, gestation weeks, and family history of hypertension and their blood pressure, urinary albumin, height, weight, and body mass index in kg/m2 (BMI). Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from each subject through sterilized syringes; 3 ml of blood was transferred to the ETDA tube and 2 ml into the clot activator Gel tube. Each sample was centrifuged and stored at -20C. Vitamin B12 and homocysteine ELISA kits were used for measuring the vitamin B12 as well as homocysteine levels in each blood sample. Vitamin B12 was analyzed by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Intrinsic Factor assay. For both Vitamin B12 and homocysteine analysis, a commercially available ARCHITECH kit was used. SPSS version 26.0 was used.
It was observed that vitamin B12 in both cases and control were the most frequent. In case twenty-three (77%) and control twenty-two (73%) are in the normal range. Five (17%) and seven (23%) are deficient in both case and control, respectively. Only two (7%) and one (3%) had a high vitamin b12 in the case and control, respectively. On the other hand, none of the cases was deficient with homocysteine, while only three (3%) in control were deficient with homocysteine. Three (10%) and six (20%) had high homocysteine levels than normal in the case and control, respectively.
Our results highlight the importance of Vitamin B12 and homocysteine in pregnancy. Further large-scale studies should evaluate the relationship between Vitamin B12 and homocysteine in pre-eclampsia and abruption.
Roberts JM, August PA, Bakris G, Barton JR, Bernstin IM, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2013 Nov;122(5):1122-31
Belay AS, Wudad T. Prevalence and associated factors of pre-eclampsia among pregnant women attending anti-natal care at Mettu Karl referal hospital, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study. Clinical hypertension. 2019 Dec;25(1):1-8
Tranquilli A, Dekker G, Magee L, Roberts J, Sibai BM, Steyn W, Zeeman GG, Brown MA. The classification, diagnosis and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a revised statement from the ISSHP. Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women's Cardiovascular Health. 2014 Apr 1;4(2):97-104
Magnus P, Trogstad L. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. Norsk epidemiologi. 2014 Dec 29;24(1-2).
Shiozaki A, Saito S. Risk factors for preeclampsia. InPreeclampsia 2018 (pp. 3-25). Springer, Singapore
Jain N, Singh A, Bhattacharjee J. Serum homocysteine and folate levels as a predictor of materno-fetal outcome in preeclamptic women. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018 Dec 1;7(12):4939-45
Gaiday AN, Tussupkaliyev AB, Bermagambetova SK, Zhumagulova SS, Sarsembayeva LK, Dossimbetova MB, Daribay ZZ. Effect of homocysteine on pregnancy: a systematic review. Chemico-biological interactions. 2018 Sep 25;293:70-6
Farr A, Lenz-Gebhart A, Einig S, Ortner C, Holzer I, Elhenicky M, Husslein PW, Lehner R. Outcomes and trends of peripartum maternal admission to the intensive care unit. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 2017 Sep;129(17):605-11
Kartika AR, Aldika Akbar MI, Umiastuti P. Risk factor of severe preeclampsia in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya in 2015. Majalah Obstetri & Ginekologi 25 (1): 6
Machano MM, Joho AA. Prevalence and risk factors associated with severe pre-eclampsia among postpartum women in Zanzibar: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2020 Dec;20(1):1-0
Kasture VV, Sundrani DP, Joshi SR. Maternal one carbon metabolism through increased oxidative stress and disturbed angiogenesis can influence placental apoptosis in preeclampsia. Life sciences. 2018 Aug 1;206:61-9
Rogne T, Tielemans MJ, Chong MF, Yajnik CS, Krishnaveni GV, Poston L, Jaddoe VW, Steegers EA, Joshi S, Chong YS, Godfrey KM. Associations of maternal vitamin B12 concentration in pregnancy with the risks of preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. American journal of epidemiology. 2017 Feb 1;185(3):212-23
Behere RV, Deshmukh AS, Otiv S, Gupte MD, Yajnik CS. Maternal vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and its association with outcomes of pregnancy and health of the offspring: a systematic review and implications for policy in India. Frontiers in endocrinology. 2021 Apr 12;12:619176
Saravanan P, Sukumar N, Adaikalakoteswari A, Goljan I, Venkataraman H, Gopinath A, Bagias C, Yajnik CS, Stallard N, Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie Y, Fall CH. Association of maternal vitamin B12 and folate levels in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes: a prospective UK cohort study (PRiDE study). Diabetologia. 2021 Oct;64(10):2170-82
Chandyo RK, Ulak M, Sommerfelt H, Schneede J, Ueland PM, Strand TA. Nutritional intake and status of cobalamin and folate among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Nutrients. 2016 Jun 22;8(6):375
Zhao H, Zeng X. Clinical influence of maternal serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in the development of pre-eclampsia. Pteridines. 2019 Feb 1;30(1):48-53
Pisal H, Dangat K, Randhir K, Khaire A, Mehendale S, Joshi S. Higher maternal plasma folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in women with preeclampsia. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2019 May;33(5):393-9
Eskild A, Romundstad PR, Vatten LJ. Placental weight and birthweight: does the association differ between pregnancies with and without preeclampsia?. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2009 Dec 1;201(6):595-e1